What is the Penguin Effect?
Penguins have a shockingly utilitarian behaviour that keeps them safe from their predators. But, before they jump into the frozen waters to fish, they jostle each other to the edge of the ice. This is a gradual and hesitant shuffle. As an unfortunate front-line penguin slides to the precipice, the group nudges its comrade into the water. The penguin then falls into the freezing waters underneath and the group waits. The involuntary participant surfaces and swims about, happy at having not been eaten by a predatory whale. To the group, this indicates that there are no hungry killer whales under the surface. So, they all jump in and the mass fishing begins.